Mention a ghost and the person you’re talking to will do one of three things: scoff, show polite interest while thinking you’re nuts, or begin telling their own ghost stories. Ghosts fascinate us, scare us, make us wonder about the world’s hidden possibilities and potential. At the base of it all is our curiosity and speculation. Are ghosts real? If so, how do we know?
Experience is the best teacher in such nebulous cases. Those who have stories to tell — real stories — do so from their own encounter of some sort. Or someone they know and trust had at least one experience with a ghost. In the Pagan world, ghosts are accepted as real, existing entities; like in other traditions such as Shinto, some Native American, and Voudu ancestor worship is still practiced. People who can sense or commune with ghosts are called mediums, psychics, or psychopomps. They have the ability to interact directly with the dead and often attract spirits to them. As a result they have the most experience in ghost activity.
I am a High Priestess of a Mystery tradition, initiated and trained to perform rituals and interact with the deities. During my work my elders and I discovered I have psychopomp talent. I have my own ghost stories to tell: from a brief visit by my dead uncle to being attacked by a woman dead over a hundred years to a newly-dead man killed in a car accident wanting the vehicle to be found (I made an anonymous call to the police). Because of my encounters with the dead I have no doubt that they are real.
Psychopomps sometimes decide to become paranormal investigators to put their natural talent to work rather than deny it or stay quiet about it. They are strong enough to accept their abilities, take responsibility for using it and choose to help people who are certain they are being haunted. Debbi Chestnut is one such worker. A Michigan resident, she has written books about ghosts and teaches people about paranormal activity. Christopher Brewer and James Manda are paranormal researchers as well. Chris, an Oglala Sioux from Pine Ridge, SD met Jim at a metaphysical store in Colorado. When they discovered a shared interest in ghosts they teamed up in 2007, and The Spiritchasers, their paranormal investigations business, was born.
Chris grew up in a traditional Native American culture which accepts the existence of ghosts, spirits, and entities as real and part of everyday life. He learned that these energy forms were not to be feared. Chris’ first experience with unseen entities occurred at his cousin’s house when he was twelve years old. The family is a large one and so they bought a big, old oak dining table which went in the kitchen. Soon the odd occurrences began. Kitchen chairs had moved away from the table; objects on the table itself were moved as well. Children in the house began having night terrors. Chris, with his uncle’s help, conducted his first paranormal investigation. He scattered flour around the table in order to find out if there would be footprints. He put his boom box under the table to record any odd noises. The next morning the chairs had moved from the table but there were no footprints in the flour. The boom box recorded the sound of the chairs’ scrapings but it also picked up on a ticking sound, like a grandfather clock. The family did not own any such clock. Furthermore, when Chris retrieved his boom box he discovered odd, occult-like symbols and markings carved into the table’s underside. His family decided the table had been used as an altar for some type of dark practice and so they sold it. No further activity occurred and the children’s nightmares ceased.[i]
The Spiritchasers looked into the stories they heard about Fargo’s Pizzeria, a restaurant in Colorado Springs, CO. The eatery was decorated in vintage items and has a collection of vintage clothing, furniture, and the like which is behind glass. Two mannequins representing Mr. Fargo and his wife sit at a table in one of the displays; restaurant workers who open the place for business reported mannequins’ positions sometimes moved.
When the Spiritchasers investigated Chris took photos of the vintage displays, including one of a lace mutton-sleeved blouse. After he shot the room display and looked at the result he noticed another figure in the corner of the room which wasn’t there before. Excited, he showed James the picture. When Chris enlarged it the image of a dark-haired woman clearly became visible, wearing the lace blouse. She is known as Sophia, “Fargo’s Phantom.”[ii]
Among other haunted places The Spiritchasers have investigated include the Cave of the Winds, where Chris photographed the ghost Nellie the Bride and a warrior with a bow, as well as the Flight 737 crash site where orbs and ghost mists (which appeared on a night too warm to cause the mist) floated among the twenty-seven ash trees planted in honor of each person who died in the crash. One tree in particular has a lot of activity — plane wreckage was buried beneath it.
Debbi Chestnut’s book Is Your House Haunted? describes various types of ghost manifestations, what they can look like and do, and how to tell if you and/or your home is haunted as well as what to do about it.[iv] Ghosts that manifest as mist or as semi-transparent human forms are called “apparitions”[v]; a spirit attached to what was a favorite object in life creates a “haunted object”[vi] which means the ghost will go wherever the object goes. Sophia is an excellent example of this type. The term we know as “ghost”[vii] refers to hauntings where people have died suddenly or violently, or if they linger in order to finish some uncompleted business. Family members who have died may stay around for a while to watch over loved ones or to give a final message.
Spirits will act out in order to get attention for whatever reason they need it. Debbi’s common-sense advice in her book ensures that there may or may not be mundane reasons for odd noises, lights, or other seemingly ghostly activity. Once all such everyday occurrences are accounted for, yet the activity continues, it’s time to talk to the spirit and find out what it wants. If you establish contact, try to determine how best to help, and then do it if you can.[viii] But if you have a ghost and just want to be rid of it, you can open a window in each room, smudge with sage and cedar throughout your home, and tell the spirit or spirits to depart in peace, never to return. It’s nice to follow up with a frankincense smudge to bless the space.
Chris, the manager of a metaphysical store, will talk to people when they come in wanting advice on how to be rid of a ghost or spirit they believe is haunting their home. He teaches them about smudging, about cleansing their chakras and auras, and to smudge after an argument. Fear and negative emotions can draw dark entities to a person, Chris said, so it is important to learn to be calm and stay positive as much as possible in order to keep away the things that feed on fear, etc.[ix]
Many people who have lost a loved one will attempt contact by using a Ouija board or hire a medium to perform a seance. Neither of these methods are reliable and can create more problems that they solve. It isn’t always the ghost being called who shows up. As a result, problems become much worse and then witches, paranormal investigators, or priests are brought in to take care of it.[x]
In the realm of magick, however, there are ceremonial magicians who consciously choose to work with ghosts or entities other than deities. Many do so in order to gain information, power, or control over the spirit world. Others work only with ghosts; these are necromancers. Necromancy is the art of divination by consulting with the dead. The word has its roots in the Greek nekos meaning dead, and manteria, divination. It originally meant a journey to Hades to consult with the dead rather than call a shade into a Circle.[xi]
Lewis Spence quotes Eliphas Levi from “Ritual of Transcendent Magic” to detail the exhaustive process of an evocation for either love or intelligence (information), i.e., calling on the spirit of a loved one or another shade for information. The latter motive was used by the Witch of Endor for King Saul when he went to her to find out his luck in the upcoming battle with the Palestinians.[xii]
There are not parlor tricks. I don’t recommend trying it if you already do not have the necessary training and experience. If the spirit happens to be stronger than the magician who forced it to appear then unpleasant things can happen. Spence tells about the 17th century Egyptian sorcerer Chiancungi and his sister Napula. It seems they lost their lives after he had cast his Circle, done the exorcisms, and then repeatedly called upon a particular spirit to manifest itself. When there were no apparent results they gave up and left their protective Circle, upon which they were crushed to death by the entity they had called up but which had not been able to appear until that moment.[xiii]
Not all ghosts are evil, vengeful, or severely depressed. Family members who have passed might stay to continue helping their loved ones. Others who have died violently will attempt to contact someone to help solve their murder or find their body. Often when a successful resolution is found the ghost moves on when the issue is settled. The irony of these situations comes from the fact that sensitive family members or natural psychics who can get the message and attempt to talk about it are laughed at, bullied out of believing it happened, or even committed as insane.
In the Pagan and Wiccan world we believe in spirits, ghosts, and those things that bump us in the night. For us they are real. I hope we are educated enough to refrain from stirring things up for no important reason. Ancestor worship follows particular rules and methods, as does Voudoun and Necromancy. In the Craft we can utilize the time of Samhain to contact the dead in the safety of our Circles and commune with them if we wish. If we have a benign or playful ghost living in our home, we may choose to welcome it and make it part of the family for as long as it wishes to stay. My own conclusion is that they are indeed real and such experiences make us truly blessed, for our lives are enriched and we find we have shifted from the mundane to the extraordinary. Decide how you will about the spirits and ghosts. If you choose to work with them directly, be sure you get the necessary training.
[i] From an interview with Christopher Brewer, Mar. 1, 2014, Colorado Springs, CO
[iii] Photographs of the Fargo room and of Sophia © Christopher Brewer. All right reserved. Used with permission. Images retrieved from www.thespiritchasers.com March 1, 2014.
[iv] Debbi Chestnut, Is Your House Haunted?, p. 76. MJF Books, New York, NY. 2011.
[v] Ibid, p. 76.
[vi] Ibid, p. 78.
[vii] Ibid, p. 77.
[viii] Ibid, pp. 173, 176.
[ix] Brewer interview, ibid
[x] Chestnut, ibid, p. 151-2.
[xi] Retrieved from www.sacred-texts.com/bos/bos195.htm April 10, 2015. “ Necromancy” posted by Alan Wright. From a 1960 reprint of An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, Lewis Spence, University Books, Hyde Park, New York, NY. 1960 reprint. Originally published 1920.
[xii] The Bible, I Samuel 28:7-25
[xiii] Spence, ibid.
Paganism has enjoyed a grassroots revival over the last forty and more years. It has found many expressions for many reasons: a way to get back at authority figures, a lifestyle for the bored and restless, an RPG for fun loving types, a philosophy to try out for a while to see how it fits, etc. But there are also those who are moved to find a way to express something they feel is right for them but which they can’t name — they are the truly pagan in nature. How do these seekers find an authentic expression of a deeper, older religious feeling? Today’s seekers automatically look to books to find what they’re looking for, but these often lead to more questions rather than to provide any real answers. This article will tell you how to find the deity that is right for you, which will clarify your path.
The best way to start finding one’s true pagan path is by meditation — and I mean serious meditation. If you, my reader, are not familiar with meditation, here is the basic method: Set aside some time each day when it’s quiet, but you are not so tired that you might fall asleep. Start with a ten minute session; you can extend the time if you need it as you gain experience. Sit comfortably in a chair if you are not practiced at yoga — trying a lotus position or something equally exotic if you are not used to it only causes distractions. Dim or turn off the lights; the goal is muted light, not darkness. Burn an unscented candle if you want to do so. Unscented because, remember, at the beginning scent is another distraction.
Focus on controlling your breathing. Start with a breath in to the count of three, then hold for one count, then breathe out for four counts. Do this for a minute or two until it becomes more natural for you. As you get your breath under control, use that time to quiet your mind and clear it of all those random, fussy thoughts. It often works to blow them out with your four-count breath. When you are able to do this basic exercise smoothly and easily, move on to the next step.
Begin your meditation and get to the point where your mind is clear and calm. Now you can ask yourself, “What is it about [insert your childhood religious doctrine here] that causes me to feel skeptical? Why don’t I believe in it anymore?” Be open to receiving the answer and your deeper self will give you the answer. You are clarifying for yourself why there are changes in your outlook. This exploration may take more than one meditation session, which is fine. (Anything worth having has to be worked at, and this is the perfect example of such work.) Your first step is understanding why you no longer believe what you were taught while you were growing up. Write down your thoughts when you are finished with your session(s). It’s a good idea to look back on your work so you can refresh your mind for your next meditation.
The next step, of course, is to figure out what you do believe, and this has to come from within yourself, as well. Never mind reading some books to figure it out. Trust yourself enough to get the answer and you will have your own truth. The process is the same. Get into a meditative state and ask yourself something like, “What do I really believe about the sacred? What is my reason for my new belief?” The answers you arrive at may surprise you but you will know it is true for you. Only after you have reached this point are you able to understand which deity is the one you will be serving.
Yes, you read that right: Serving. A deity is exactly that — a very powerful, mysterious but knowable entity who will recognize you from His or Her side of reality. They are not our servants or pets; we serve Them and we perform the rites They expect of us.
Meditate on which deity is the one for you. You may be surprised. A god or goddess who reveals itself to you probably won’t be connected to your personal preference, cultural heritage, or genetic makeup. In other words, just because you like Isis or Taranis, or you’re of Irish-French descent, or you live in Italy, Romania, or America does not necessarily mean you will be connecting to a deity that is Egyptian, Irish, Italian, or whatever. This is about making that connection to a sacred being who may be interested in you or has already chosen you to serve Him or Her. If it is the latter and you’ve been chosen, it is usually one you never expected to end up serving.
At this point your pagan spiritual path is pretty much decided. You have put time and energy into serious thought about these things and have received your answers. Ideally, initiation is the next step which properly connects you to your deity, and this is the hardest part because, as the saying goes, “It takes a witch to make a witch.” Initiatory Mystery traditions will accept sincere seekers who have worked out their beliefs, show a dedication to the work involved, and are doing their best to practice their faith. Often an initiated practitioner will approach the seeker to determine if they want to be initiated. If the answer is “yes,” the process begins so the seeker becomes a Novice Initiate and begins training in that tradition’s methods of ritual and worship, tools used, and the path for its members, including how to work with one’s deity. This is generally part of a High Priestess’s and/or High Priest’s responsibilities. These traditions are often oathbound, which means you are required to keep the information and training to yourself. Such knowledge is not for everyone; you must earn the right to be part of such a group. Therefore, you must be trustworthy enough to train without revealing the information to non-initiates. Hence the name — Mystery tradition.
Young seekers often become curious about popular paths, such as Wicca (the path largely created, and made public, by Gerald Gardner), Asatru (a Norse path cobbled together from the bits and pieces of mythology and available lore), Egyptian, and other “flavors” of pagan spirituality which might strike the fancy of those looking to shock their parents or strike back in some way at whatever authority figure with whom they happen to be angry. Others will follow an alternative path because the religion (or absence of one) in their lives doesn’t suit them anymore, yet they don’t know how to go about finding the way that is right for them. These people try on different beliefs to see what might fit. Once they have become disillusioned enough or have learned enough about it they often decide it isn’t right for them and they go on to the next thing (this is called “dabbling”). Fans of psychology tend to see the deities as parts of their subconscious (i.e., as archetypes), and pagan religion as a form of sociology.
Some people use paganism as an excuse to do what they perceive as naughty things, such as using drugs (drugs are used by pagans about as often as they’re used by non-pagans), engage in group sex (and, perhaps, call it the “Great Rite”), or to find easy sex partners — to them, it’s a lifestyle that will serve until they become bored, find the next lifestyle fad and move on. Some use paganism to take advantage of the naïve or gullible.
On more than one occasion so-called seekers have laughed in my face and said to me, “Oh my God! You actually think this stuff is real?” I am a High Priestess of an initiatory Mystery tradition and have been practicing for about thirty years, so I look them in the eyes and tell them, “Yes. Not only do I ‘think’ it, I know it’s real, beyond any doubt.” Their next question is usually, “How do you know it’s real?” I will tell them, “I experience it.” The person before me then either tries to laugh it off or gets nasty, but because of their own inner doubts and lack of faith/belief, they quickly end up flustered and/or confused. I have watched them walk away trying to be scornful in order to cover their own spiritual discomfort.
One young lady I met demanded to know how many occult books I’d read over the years. I told her I didn’t know but that I’d once given three boxes of them to the library. She insisted she knew more than I did, because she had a bookcase that covered an entire wall at home, filled with nothing but occult books, and she’d read every one of them. I asked her, “That’s fine, but what have you done?” She needed clarification so I repeated myself, asking what rituals had she performed or attended, that sort of thing. It turned out that she had not actually tried anything. She simply read all these books — this was her excuse for declaring herself better than me and anyone else who had not read as many books as she. All I could do was look at her in amazement at such hubris.
Reading some books about paganism isn’t going to make you a witch; it isn’t going to make you pagan. It’s fine to read them later but not as a means for finding your personal answers. Initiation is the process which makes a witch. It is a rite performed by one who has gone before you, a keeper of the Mysteries who has been through the experiences and training necessary and who can pass that knowledge on to you in the correct manner so you may be part of something that is truly alive and vital. It is not a fad, it is not a joke, and it is not a lifestyle to be tried on and tossed aside like a shirt you no longer feel like wearing. It is not an easy way of life. It is as enriching as any seeker could hope for, and the only way to find the real thing is to put away the books for the time being and begin with personal meditation on what it is you believe.
©2013 Lady Eva Michenet
Edited by Sheta Kaey.
Lady Eva Michenet was born in Colorado where she has lived nearly all of her life. Raised a Lutheran, the pastors could not or would not answer her doubting questions so she figured out what her beliefs were on her own. Eventually she was initiated and trained in the Mystery tradition she has now practiced for nearly thirty years. She currently lives with a cat and a couple of houseplants and continues to learn by developing her working knowledge of herbal healing. She is a Tarot/Scrying Stones reader/counselor, has become a Reiki III healer, likes to bead and wire wrap, hike, read, make things, and watch action movies.
Several years ago I happened across a program on cable about non-violent horse “breaking.” I don’t recall the trainer’s name, but I still recall the method: The horse was in an arena with a high wall, no visuals to the outside; the trainer stood in the center with a long rope. The trainer kept tossing one end of the rope over the horse’s back, which caused the animal to gallop and move around the edge of the space. According to the trainer, it would take anywhere from fifteen minutes to an hour for the horse to start giving in and communicate information using its body language. When the horse paused and turned toward the trainer, the man turned away — signaling he was not a threat — at a forty-five degree angle from the horse. The animal walked up to him and touched his shoulder with its muzzle, a sign it had accepted him as the higher-status creature and was willing to be partners with him and start working.
How does this relate to the Horse as totem? It is clearly indicative that the horse as animal is at service to humans and it can be made to understand this of its own accord. It is a natural partner in the things that humans need from it, such as travel, portage, and working the land. This quality is part of the essential spirit of the horse because it is a universally shared trait in all domestic horses (I am excluding the ones who have been so badly treated they cannot be helpful to their owners/ handlers). It is part of the Horse totem and is passed from it as a common, shared essence to all horses on the physical plane. It is part of what makes a horse a horse.
I have worked with a Horse as my totem. Its primary function, what made it happy to do, was carrying me to the spirit world when I was seeking a vision. The Horse provided passage for me as a partner in my sojourn. Apart from that transition, it did not participate in my experiences. It was distinguishable from an imaginary horse by the fact that I saw it after I intentionally began my search for a totem animal; it appeared with a feather attached to its mane, and its coloring was not like a physical animal: oxblood red and white piebald. Several people have said to me, “Oh, it’s an archetype you’re contacting.” This is a blithe, presumptive view that is based in what seems to be a misunderstanding of an archetype.
Webster’s online dictionary defines “archetype” as “1: the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies . . . 3: an inherited idea or mode of thought in the psychology of C. G. Jung that is derived from the experience of the race and is present in the unconscious of the individual.1” The most common understanding of an archetype is as an “original pattern” per the first definition, and that all others are copies; this does not fit the Horse totem in that the spirit Horse does not look like Eohippus2, any more than do the horses in our everyday world. Eohippus was the original, but evolution has altered and changed it to the point that horses are no longer copies.
So, strictly speaking, the Horse totem is not an archetype. The third Webster definition references Jung’s theory of inherited racial experience; in that sense, the Horse totem is a better fit. Its suggestion, however, is that of karma (learning from past lives) and so leads to the notion of animals having souls which can learn over long periods of death and rebirth. It would be the only way that race experience could affect the horse’s mode of thought and perception of itself. Since we are not exploring that theory (and its implications), then we are left with the definition of “race” as it applies only to human beings and the soul’s karmic lessons. In that context, the Jungian reference does not apply to animals at all and animal totems, such as the Horse, are not an archetype.
The Horse is not a deity, since a “deity” is a god or goddess, a Supreme Being, or of divine character3. Horses are beasts of burden and work. A god or goddess is no servant. Animals can be symbolic of deities: The Horse is Epona’s symbol (and the Grey Mare is symbolic of Mala Laith, the Scottish Moon Goddess), the Raven is symbolic of Morganna, the Bull for Zeus, the Goat for Pan, and so forth.
We have established that the totem is not an archetype, nor is it a deity. Then where in the pagan cosmology would it fit? I postulate that it is in the middle ground of spirits along with faeries, elves, gnomes, undines, angels, demons, etc. As a totem it is a class unto itself, just as the other spirits I mentioned are in their own classes. To refer again to our dictionary definitions, a totem is: “1 a: an object (as an animal or plant) serving as the emblem of a family or clan and often as a reminder of its ancestry . . . a usually carved or painted representation of such an object. b: a family or clan identified by a common totemic object. 2: one that serves as an emblem or revered symbol.” The etymology is Ojibwa, oto·te·man, “his totem,” ca. 17764.
In the sense of the first definition, a good example is the Lakota Sioux, who know themselves as the “People of the Horse.” Yet the usual definitions fall short of delineating the totem as a living being on another plane of existence that can, and does, connect directly with those who seek out the totem that relates closely with him or her. For example, a person who meditates with the intent of finding his totem might encounter the Dragonfly. Such a totem indicates imagination and creativity, but also flightiness. A person who receives such a totem, and who is not particularly creative, may need to find those qualities within himself; the Dragonfly totem is there to show him what he must do at that time. Flightiness may also be part of the person’s psychological makeup, or it could be a problem later, so the seeker may have to work on being more stable, committed or focused.
I mentioned ‘intent” in regard to finding a totem animal, and that is the vital difference between imagination and hallucination. The seeker deliberately, with purpose and conscious effort utilizing learned meditation techniques, sets about the task of attracting a totem animal to her. Through meditation she enters the spirit world; by keeping an open mind and an attitude of expectancy a creature of the natural world will approach, showing itself to the seeker in three different viewpoints (front and each side), which is how one recognizes the true totem animal. Anything else will indeed be imagination or a flight of fancy. A seeker must allow the totem to approach — no chasing after it! — and to gratefully accept whichever animal has decided to assist her in the work. A seeker skilled at carving may create a representation of her totem, known as a “fetish,” to keep in the meditation area as a home for the totem’s spirit and energy.
Many people like to “dance” their totems after they have arrived, to create unity with them and to give them energy so they will be happy and will stay. Dancing a totem means moving the way it moves and making the same noises: growls, snuffing, lumbering about as a Bear if that is the totem; buzzing and flying motions for Bee or Fly; hopping and croaking for Frog, and so forth. Some people will go out into the woods and dance their totems to the extent that they will run and leap and give each spirit animal the freedom to be itself, using the seeker’s body as its vehicle. Totems have been known to leave if they are neglected.
These spirit animals are there to help the seeker learn more about herself, so if you are looking for one or you have one already, make sure you meditate with it so you can gain intuitive knowledge from it. Why is it with you? What do you need to learn from it? What is it willing to show you? It is necessary to keep an open mind, for it might have surprises in store. It is not always a comfortable experience but it is fruitful if you can accept the unpleasant sides of yourself as well as the positives.
Even if you are dancing your totem, have carved a fetish for it, and have meditated with it to glean what information it may offer, your totem animal still might leave you. There is nothing that can be done about this, for it simply means that the animal has nothing more it can teach you or help you with and it must move on. You may then seek another totem, one that is ready and willing to help you with your next stage of learning.
To return to my Horse: I was, at the time it came to me, seeking passage to the world of visions, to learn more about myself. After the piebald spirit showed me it was my totem, it indicated it wanted me to get on its back, so I did. It then carried me to the Underworld where visions happen. The entire venture was a success, and I have traveled there several times since.
As a helper for journeying, the Horse is swift and certain as long as you, its rider, keep in mind where you want to go. Intent and goal are its guides, much as a bridle and reins. The Horse comes when the seeker has gone into meditation as preparation for journeying. It will invite the seeker to mount up by presenting itself sideways and moving closer; if the seeker is slow to understand it will turn its head and “point” with its muzzle to its side — a directive to climb on board. The rider keeps her goal of the Underworld firmly in mind. The Horse will start galloping and will go into the Earth tunnel to take its rider safely to the perceived destination. After emerging into the spirit world, the rider dismounts to continue her intended work. The Horse remains where it is, usually grazing, waiting until it is time to bring its rider back to the everyday world. I like to reward it with a nice, big apple and a couple of carrots as a way of saying thanks before I come out of my meditation.
If you wish to try attracting a Horse totem to yourself so you may work with it as a journeying aid, I suggest going into your meditation with that purpose in mind. Make sure you visualize that you are carrying treats for it. Focus on Horse in general, not a specific breed, color, build, etc. In a sense you are “calling” the spirit animal to you. If a Horse totem chooses to respond, it will do so and show itself to you in three different views as I have mentioned above. Allow it to approach you; offer the treats and if it
accepts them you have your Horse totem to ride as a journeying partner.
- Archetype. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
- Anonymous. (2008). Evolution of the Horse. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
- Deity. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
- Totem. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
©2009 Lady Eva Michenet
Edited by Sheta Kaey